Sigma is a Greek letter, it is a term in statistics to describe the variation of process and standard value , in statistics it is used to represent the dispersion of data, and to describe the probability of defects .
6-Sigma: is a very demanding process to help enterprises to realise near-perfect quality objectives , a decision method based on data, the objective is to improve quality, reduce cost, maximize value, customer satisfaction / market competitiveness and a commitment to the process of continual improvements.
It is a defined production or service process standard, it use data for description, 6-Sigma can be represented by PPM=3.4, that is, for every 1,000,000 units(or service) the defect is less than 3.4 units.
6-Sigma Benefits to organization :
- Enable organisations rapidly increase ability to win customers and market at the same time reduce cost
- Enhance management and product quality
- Prevent potential defects, reduce quality cost, increase efficiency
- Improve overall operation processes, employee attitude improvement and fitness in competition.
6-Sigma core process:
This innovative method is through Define, Measure, Analyse, Improve, Control (DMAIC) core processes. DMAIC is used in three essential improvement processes:
- 6-Sigma product / service realization process;
- 6-Sigma business process improvement;
- 6-Sigma design SSDP.
Establish 6-Sigma Management Process:
1. Top-down driven process, lead by the top management. Top management raise improvement/innovation objective (this objective is closely related to the strategy and vision of organizational development) , resources and time frame.
2. Process Control:
Define D: Define core problem, define improvement project objectives and identify critical characteristics CTQ.
Measure M: Measure present level, establish improved baseline.
Analyse A: Analyse present level and target level gap and root cause of the problems
Improve I: Use economic and effective methods to seek breakthrough and improvement.
Control C: Setup maintenance measures, standardise, replicate in similar products and processes, also apply to the development of new products/services.
3. Applicable Technology:
- Measuring Technology: DPMO measuring methods, process capability analysis (including short/long term analysis)
- Fundamental Technology: New, old seven tools
- Advanced Technology:
• SPC, variation of improvement and monitoring process
• DOE to improve design, achieve excellence in process capability
• FMEA, assistance in defining improvement projects, setup improvement objectives
• QFD, convert customer requirements to internal work orders
• Fault prevention, to prevent defects from root cause
- Soft Technology:
• improve team work
• employee ability and empowerment
• communication and feedback
- Through training people with defined responsibility to ensure market share
- Increase customer return rate; reduce cost; reduce cycle time
- Reduce defect rate; speed up product / service development; culture change
5. Managing Team
DMAIC applicable to operation level, strategic units (business units) levels and product / service projects.
1) Samura: Senior manager with 6-Sigma implementation responsibility. Planning 6-Sigma implmentation and overall supports. Responsible for identify and select 6-Sigma projects. follow up or monitor 6-Sigma progress.
2) Big Black Belt: 6-Sigma technical application overall responsibility. Assist Samura in project selection, preare implementation plan and time frame, provide 6-Sigma to black belt; support advanced technical tools, responsible for mobilise, co-ordinate , and communication.
3) Black Belt: Come from different Departments, attended 6-Sigma renovation process and tools training, responsible for instruction or leading a project. provide training and instruction to green belts.
4) Green Belt: Attended training, participate 6-Sigma project from his own position.
Proportion: For every 1000 emplyees; Big Black Belt: One一名; Black Belt: 10; Green Belt: 50-70.
6. Continous improvements
- Performance Monitoring System establishment;
- Setup Self Improvement Mechanism.
FormalWin’s Role in 6-Sigma:
- Consultant team with industrial experiences to conduct indepth gap analysis, redesign process flow, identify core problems, find out what are the most appropriate tools and processes required.
- Train employees on management concepts, not on operation techniques.
- Implement business process flow for the organisation, identify deviation from the objectives.
- After delivery, a periodic evaluation is applied, adjust slipages from time to time.
- Emphasis on training, different training for different levels, appropriate courses for employees to understand6-Sigma, cultivate continuous improvement culture.
- Focus on team spirit, co-operative spirit, enable 6-Sigma system implementation, enhance effectiveness.